The rise to the throne of Queen Victoria in 1837 marked the decline of the use of cosmetics. The Victorian Era was a time dominated by a strict moral code, religious values, modesty and sexual restraint. Therefore, during this period cosmetics were considered to be immoral, their use frowned upon and thought to be something that only women of dubious morals would wear. But that doesn’t mean that ladies stopped using them altogether.
While actresses and prostitutes, which at the time were considered to be pretty much the same thing, kept on wearing strong makeup, well-off ladies used very little and in very natural tones. In fact, at the time the ideal of beauty to achieve was that of a delicate, feminine and fragile woman, with a pale complexion and long curls. Here’s how they achieved it.
Like in past historical periods, even in the Victorian era a pale complexion was a sign of nobility. It meant that women were well-off and could afford not to spend hours working outdoors, which would inevitably result in a tan, something considered very vulgar. What changed though, was the way to achieve this fair complexion. Although some of the deadly mixtures of the past were still around, it was during this time that women started using Zinc Oxide, a white mineral powder, which was safer but still achieved the same effect.
However, in line with the decrease of the use of cosmetics, ladies would also preserve their skin pale by avoiding the sun and fresh hair, using parasols when outdoors to protect their skin from the sun rays and even by drinking vinegar. A white and translucent complexion was so desired that some women would even paint some very fine blue lines on their skin to make it look more translucent, as the veins underneath were showing.
But that’s not all. Some women would go to greater lenghts to achieve a pale, almost sickly look: they would emphasize their dark circles! One way of doing this was by applying a red rouge on cheeks and lips. Luckily, this trend didn’t last long! In addition, powders were used, but very sparingly, to prevent shine and give skin a glowy apperance.
Although, as previously mentioned, cosmetics were frowned upon, makeup was still used but very sparingly and in softer tones to achieve a very natural look. Eyeshadows were made with lead and antimony sulfide, lipsticks with mercuric sulfide and on the cheeks, beet juice was applied. All of these cosmetics were very pale-toned and applied carefully so they wouldn’t be too obvious. Eyebrows were also plucked.
Makeup may not have been very used, but DIY skincare recipes made at home with ingredients found in the kitchen were still very popular. Creams were made using mostly natural ingredients. Tonics were mixtures of water and scents of roses, lilies or violets, while creams were made with waxes, almond oil and scents.
During the Victoria’s period, a woman’s hair was considered her glory. That’s why women very rarely cut their locks (they usually only did it when they were ill) and would also apply false hair to their mane to make it fuller. Hair was usually pulled back in chignons and buns, and sometimes long, gentle curls were let loose at the back or at the sides of the face to emphasize it. In addition, ornate combs and clips were very used to decorated hair, while oils were applied to give hairstyles a sleek and smooth appearance. As for men, they started wearing their hair much shorter than they ever did in the past, but would still wear beards and moustaches.